## Stylistic Alternates for ച്ച, ള്ള in Manjari and Chilanka fonts

The ligatures for the Malayalam conjuncts ച്ച, ള്ള have less popular variants as shown below

The second form is not seen in print but often in handwritten Malayalam. I have seen it a lot in bus boards especially at Thiruvananthapuram. There are no digital typefaces with the second style, except the Chilanka font I designed. It uses the second variant of ച്ച. I got lot of appreciation for that style variant, but also recieved request for the first form of ച്ച. I had a private copy of Chilanka with that variant and had given to whoever requested. I also recieved some requests for the second style of ള്ള. For the Manjari font too, I recieved requests for second variant.

Today I am announcing the new version of Manjary and Chilanka font, with these two forms as optional variants without the need for a different copy of a font. In a single font, you will get both these variants using the Opentype stylistic alternatives feature.

The default styles of ച്ച and ള്ള are not changed in new version. The fonts comes with an option to chose a different form.

## Choosing the style for webfonts using CSS

Use the font-feature-settings CSS style to choose a style. For the element or class in the html, use it as follows:

For style 1:

font-feature-settings: "salt" 1;

For style 2:

font-feature-settings: "salt" 2;

## Choosing the style variant in LibreOffice

In the place of the font name in font selector, append :salt=1 for first style, :salt=2 for second style. So you need to give Manjari Regular:salt=2 as the font name for example to get second style.

## Choosing the style variant in XeLaTeX

fontspec allows to choose alterate style variants. Use Alternate=N syntax. Note that N starts from 0. So for style1, use Alternate=0 and for style2 use Alternate=2. Refer section 2.8.3 of fontspec documentation.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage{polyglossia}
\newfontfamily{\manjari}[Script=Malayalam]{Manjari}
\begin{document}

\end{document}


This will produce the following rendering:

## Choosing the style variant in Inkscape

Inkscape font selection dialog has a feature to chose font style variants. It uses the property values of CSS font-feature-settng.

In Adobe, Indesign, selecting the ligature will give stylistic alternative(s) if any to choose.

## Anniversary of Manjari font release

Today, July 23 marks one year anniversary of Manjari font release.

Out of all my projects, this is the project that gave me highest satisfaction. I see people using it in social media every day for memes, banners, notices. I have seen the font used for Government publishings, notices, reports. I have seen wedding invitations, book covers, Movie titles with Manjari font. I am so happy that Malayalam speakers loved it.

Kavya and me are working on new version of Manjari with more glyphs to support latest Unicode, and optimize some of the ligature rules. The latest version of the font is always available at https://smc.org.in/fonts

## Detailed font reports using fontreport tool

Google i18n team developed a tool to create detailed report of fonts. The tool named fontreport, produces a multi page PDF with Unicode coverage of the font, what glyphs are in it, what Open Type features it supports, available ligatures, and glyph substitutions. Optionally the tool can also create plain text reports. The PDF is generated using TeX.

I found it very useful to create report for a dozen of fonts I maintain with Swathantha Malayalam Computing community. Sharing the reports it created:

Font reports(PDF):

## Fontconfig language matching

I had to spend a few hours to debug a problem about fontconfig not identifiying a font for a language. Following the tradition of sharing the knowledge you acquired in hard way, let me note it down here for search engines.

The font that I am designing now has 3 style variants, thin, regular and bold. All has same family name. So if you set this family for whatever purpose, depending on context, thin, regular or bold versions will be picked up. Regular is expected by default. Also when you pick the font from font selectors, you would expect, regular being selected by default.

The problem I was facing is, instead of Regular, Bold was getting selected as default. In font selectors, Bold was listed first.

In GNU/Linux systems, this font matching and selection is done by fontconfig. I started with fc-match

$fc-match MyFont MyFontBold.otf: "MyFont" "Bold" So that confirms the problem. After fiddling with os/2 properties , asking in fontconfig mailing list, and reading fontconfig documentation, I found that the lang property fontconfig calculates from Regular variant of font does not include ‘en’ $ fc-list MyFont : family : style : lang
MyFont:style=Bold:lang=aa|ay|bi|br|ch|en|es|eu|fj|fur|gd|gl|gv|ho|ia|id|ie|io|it|mg|ml|nl|nr|nso|oc|om|pt|rm|so|sq|ss|st|sw|tl|tn|ts|uz|vo|xh|yap|zu|an|fil|ht|jv|kj|kwm|li|ms|ng|pap-an|pap-aw|rn|r
w|sc|sg|sn|su|za
MyFont:style=Regular:lang=aa|ay|bi|br|ch|da|de|es|et|eu|fi|fj|fo|fur|fy|gl|ho|ia|id|ie|io|is|it|ki|lb|mg|ml|nb|nds|nl|nn|no|nr|nso|ny|om|rm|sma|smj|so|ss|st|sv|sw|tl|tn|ts|uz|vo|vot|xh|yap|zu|an|f
il|ht|jv|kj|kwm|li|ms|na|ng|pap-an|pap-aw|rn|rw|sc|sg|sn|su|za

I tried to find how fontconfig calculates the languages supported by a font. The minimum set of code points to be included in a font so that fontconfig declare that it supports a given language is defined in the fontconfig library. You can find them in source code. For example, mandatory code points(glyphs that match to it) to be present for English is defined in en.orth file. I cross checked each code points and one was indeed missing from my regular font variant, but bold version had everything. When I added it, all started working normally.

Later fontconfig developer Akira TAGOH told me that I can also use fc-validate to check the language coverage

$fc-validate --lang=en MyFont.otf MyFont.otf:0 Missing 1 glyph(s) to satisfy the coverage for en language And after adding the missing glyph $ fc-validate --lang=en MyFont.otf
MyFont.otf:0 Satisfy the coverage for en language

And now fc-match list Regular as default style

\$ fc-match MyFont
MyFont.otf: "MyFont" "Regular"

## New handwriting style font for Malayalam: Chilanka

A new handwriting style font for Malayalam is in development. The font is named as “Chilanka”(ചിലങ്ക).

This is a alpha version release. Following is a sample rendering.

More samples here.

You may try the font using this edtiable page http://smc.org.in/downloads/fonts/chilanka/tests/ -It has the font embedded

Chilanka/ചിലങ്ക is a musical anklet

A brief note on the workflow I used for font development is as follows

1. Prepared a template svg in Inkscape that has all guidelines and grid setup.
2. Draw the glyphs. This is the hardest part. For this font, I used bezier tool of inkscape. SVG with stroke alone is saved. Did not prepare outline in Inkscape, this helped me to rework on the drawing several times easily. To visualize how the stroke will look like in outlined version, I set stroke width as 130, with rounded end points. All SVGs are version tracked. SVGs are saved as inkscape svgs so that I can retain my guidelines and grids.
3. In fontforge, import this svgs and create the outline using expand stroke, with stroke width 130, stroke height 130,  pen angle 45 degree, line cap and line join as round.
4. Simplify the glyph automatically and manually to reduce the impact of conversion of Cubic bezier to quadratic bezier.
5. Metrics tuning. Set both left and right bearings as 100 units(In general, there are glyph specfic tuning)
6. The opentype tables are the complex part. But for this font, it did not take much time since I used SMC’s already existing well maintained feature tables. I could just focus on design part.
7. Test using test scripts

Some more details:

• Design: Santhosh Thottingal
• Technology: Santhosh Thottingal and Kavya Manohar
• Total number of glyphs: 676. Includes basic latin glyphs.
• Project started on September 15, 2014
• Number of svgs prepared: 271
• Em size: 2048. Ascend: 1434. Descend: 614
• 242 commits so far.
• All drawings are in inkscape. No paper involved, no tracing.

Thanks for all my friends who are helping me testing and for their encouragement.
Stay tuned for first version announcement 🙂

(Cross posted from http://blog.smc.org.in/new-handwriting-style-font-for-malayalam-chilanka/ )

## Meera Tamil font in Ubuntu Trusty Tahr

Ubuntu Trusty Tahr is going to be released on April 17th 2014.

Meera Tamil font, a free licensed unicode font for Tamil will be available in this release.

The font is already available in Debian. In both Ubuntu and Debian you can install the font by

sudo apt-get install fonts-meera-taml

Thanks Vasudev for packaging it for Debian.

## Spurious glyphs in NotoSansMalayalam

NotoSansMalayalam is a font released by Google internationalization team under noto project. I was checking the glyphs of Malayalam and noted a number of spurious glyphs in the font

It is interesting because the font attempted to provide a minimal Malayalam font with reduced glyph set. While attempting that about 10% of the glyphs are either non-existing Malayalam glyphs(Glyphs with dot under consonants) or rarely used glyphs(Glyphs with U+0D62 MALAYALAM VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC L)

Bug filed. It was learned that the last set of glyphs with dots above and below are for Carnatic music notations. They are not defined by unicode, but font used a custom way of representing them with a ligature formed by U+0307.

## Collaboratively edited documentation for Indic font developers

One of the integral building blocks for providing multilingual support for digital content are fonts. In current times, OpenType fonts are the choice. With the increasing need for supporting languages beyond the Latin script, the TrueType font specification was extended to include elements for the more elaborate writing systems that exist. This effort was jointly undertaken in the 1990s by Microsoft and Adobe. The outcome of this effort was the OpenType Specification – a successor to the TrueType font specification.

Fonts for Indic languages had traditionally been created for the printing industry. The TrueType specification provided the baseline for the digital fonts that were largely used in desktop publishing. These fonts however suffered from inconsistencies arising from technical shortcomings like non-uniform character codes. These shortcomings made the fonts highly unreliable for digital content and their use across platforms. The problems with character codes were largely alleviated with the gradual standardization through modification and adoption of Unicode character codes. The OpenType Specification additionally extended the styling and behavior for the typography.

The availability of the specification eased the process of creating Indic language fonts with consistent typographic behaviour as per the script’s requirement. However, disconnects between the styling and technical implementation hampered the font creation process. Several well-stylized fonts were upgraded to the new specification through complicated adjustments, which at times compromised on their aesthetic quality. On the other hand, the technical adoption of the specification details was a comparatively new know-how for the font designers. To strike a balance, an initiative was undertaken by the a group of font developers and designers to document the knowledge acquired from the hands own experience for the benefit of upcoming developers and designers in this field.

The outcome of the project will be an elaborate, illustrated guideline for font designers. A chapter will be dedicated to each of the Indic scripts – Bengali, Devanagari, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Odia, Punjabi, Tamil and Telugu. The guidelines will outline the technical representation of the canonical aspects of these complex scripts. This is especially important when designing for complex scripts where the shape or positioning of a character depends on its relation to other characters.

This project is open for participation and contributors can commit directly on the project repository.

## New version of Malayalam fonts released

Swathanthra Malayalam Computing project announced the release of new version of Malayalam unicode fonts this week. In this version, there are many improvements for popular Malayalam fonts Rachana and Meera. Dyuthi font has some bug fixes. I am listing the changes below.

1. Meera font was small compared to other fonts. This was not really a problem in Gnome environment since fontconfig allows you to define a scaling factor to match other font size. But it was an issue in Libreoffice, KDE and mainly in Windows where this kind of scaling feature does not work. Thanks to P Suresh for a rework on glyphs and fixing this issue.
2. Rachana, Meera and Dyuthi had wrong glyphs used as placeholder glyphs. Bugs like these are fixed.
3. Virama 0D4D had a wrong LSB that cause the cursor positioning and glyph boundary go wrong. Fixed that bug
4. Atomic Chilu code points introduced in Unicode 5.1 was missing in all the fonts that SMC maintained because of the controversial decision by Unicode and SMC’s stand against that. Issues still exist, but content with code point is present, to avoid any difficulties to users, added those characters to Meera and Rachana fonts.
5. Rupee Symbols added to Meera and Rachana. Thanks to Hiran for designing Sans and Serif glyphs for Rupee.
6. Dot Reph(0D4E) – The glyphs for this was already present in Meera but unmapped to any unicode point. GSUB Lookup tables added to the glyphs according to unicode specification.

For a more detailed change description see this mail thread. There are some minor changes as well.

Thanks to Hussain K H (designer of both Meera and Rachana) , P Suresh, Hiran for their valuable contribution. And thanks to SMC community and font users for using the fonts and reporting bugs. We hope that we can bring this new version in your favorite GNU/Linux distros soon. Wikimedia’s WebFonts extension uses Meera font and the font will be updated there soon. Next release of GNU Freefont is expected to update Malayalam glyphs using Meera and Rachana for freefont-sans and freefont-serif font respectively. We plan to update other fonts we maintain also with these changes in next versions. There are still some glyphs missing in these fonts with respect to the latest unicode version.

## SVG Fonts

This post is some notes on the current state of SVG Fonts.

SVG is not a webfont format. The purpose of SVG fonts is to be embedded inside of SVG documents  (or linked to them), similar to the way you would embed standard  TrueType or OpenType fonts in a PDF.  SVG fonts are text files that contain the glyph outlines represented  as standard SVG elements and attributes, as if they were single vector  objects in the SVG image. Unlike EOT, WOFF, TTF formats , SVG is plain text uncompressed file.

Even though it is not webfont format, some browsers will accept svg in the @fontface css3 declaration.

Firefox and IE does not support SVG Fonts. Here is the bug on Mozilla bugzilla about this with a lengthy discussion –https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=119490  This is one of the reason why Firefox does not score ACID3 test – http://www.itcode.org/why-firefox-is-not-scoring-100-in-the-acid3-test . Developers argue that WOFF is sufficient and SVG Fonts does not give any advantage.  Support for SVG Fonts in the web development and font communities has been declining for some time. There’s already been discussion without objection of dropping SVG fonts from the Acid3 test. The community has put forth a proposal in the SVG Working Group to give SVG Fonts optional status.

Browser Support Matrix for SVG Fonts http://caniuse.com/#feat=svg-fonts  IE and FF do not support it. Webkit based browsers support it – Chrome, Epiphany. For browsers not supporting svg features natively there is a flash based javascript library named svgweb http://code.google.com/p/svgweb/

Limitations of svg fonts:

• Not all of the opentype features are available in SVG specification
• For example Indic fonts require many opentype features for correct rendering – see opentype spec of Malayalam http://www.microsoft.com/typography/otfntdev/malayot/shaping.aspx
• Even though SVG Fonts are support is available in some browsers, practically they cannot render SVG fonts for complex scripts such as Indic – Here is a sample svg file with Meera font defined in it – http://thottingal.in/tests/svg/Meera-fontembedding.svg. As you can see, rendering is wrong.
• The main drawback to SVG fonts is there is no provision for font-hinting. The SVG standard states: “SVG  fonts contain unhinted font outlines. Because of this, on many  implementations there will be limitations regarding the quality and  legibility of text in small font sizes. For increased quality and  legibility in small font sizes, content creators may want to use an  alternate font technology, such as fonts that ship with operating  systems or an alternate WebFont format. – http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG/fonts.html”

There is an alternate proposal to use opentype features of the font and use svg just for the glyphs https://wiki.mozilla.org/SVGOpenTypeFonts

Fontforge can be used for creating SVG Fonts. But the created SVG font works only for simple scripts like Latin. Fails to export GPOS/GSUB tables to the SVG- bug report – http://sourceforge.net/mailarchive/message.php?msg_id=27964229 GSUB issue can be solved either by handcoding the unicode sequences for glyphs or by writing an external script. But , more important opentype features- Vowel sign(matra) reordering issues persists.

Eventhough svg fonts by defining font data inside svg itself does not seem to have much interest from developers, using webfonts inside for svg has some importance. Just like web pages, webfonts can be used to render the text inside the svg. The webfont format depends on the browser. Example: http://thottingal.in/tests/svg/Dyuthi-Webfont.svg (Have a look at the source code of the file)