## LibreOffice Malayalam spellchecker using mlmorph

A few months back, I wrote about the spellchecker based on Malayalam morphology analyser. I was also trying to intergrate that spellchecker with LibreOffice. It is not yet ready for any serious usage, but if you are curious and would like to help me in its further development, please read on.

### Current status

The libreoffice spellchecker for Malayalam is available at https://gitlab.com/smc/mlmorph-libreoffice-spellchecker. You need to get the code using git checkout or download the master version as zip file

You need LibreOffice 4.1 or later. Latest version is recommended. In the source code directory, run make install to install the extension.

Open libreoffice writer, add some Malayalam text. Make sure to select the language as Malayalam by choosing it from the menu or bottom status bar. You should see the spelling check in action… if everything goes as expected 😉

### How can you help?

Theoretically, the extension should work in non-Linux platforms as well. But I have not tested it. The extension need python3 and python-hfst for the operating system. But python-hfst is not available for Windows 64 bit python installation. If you test and get the extension working, please add documentation and if anything missing to make the installation more easy, let me know.

As the mlmorph project get wider support for Malayalam vocabulary, the quality of spellchecker improves automatically.

## Malayalam Named Entity Recognition using morphology analyser

Named Entity Recognition, a task of identifying and classifying real world objects such as persons, places, organizations from a given text is a well known NLP problem. For Malayalam, there were several research papers published on this topic, but none are functional or reproducible research.

The morphological characteristics of Malayalam has been always a challenge to solve this problem. When the named entities appear in an inflected or agglutinated complex word, the first step is to analyse such words and arrive at the root words.

As the Malayalam morphology analyser is progressing well, I attempted to build a first version of Malayalam NER on top of it. Since mlmorph gives the POS tagging and analysis, there is not much to do in NER. We just need to look for tags corresponding to proper nouns and report.

You can try the system at https://morph.smc.org.in/ner

### Known Limitations

• The recognition is limited by the current lexicon of mlmorph. To recognize out of lexicon entities, a POS guesser would be needed. But this is a general problem not limited to NER. A morphology analyser should also have a POS guesser. In other words as the mlmorph improves, this system also improves automatically.
• Currently the recognition is at word level. But sometimes, the entities are written in multiple consecutive words. To resolve that we will need to write a wrapper on top of word level detection system.
• The current system is a javascript wrapper on top the mlmorph analyse api. I think NER deserve its own api.

## Scribus gets hyphenation support for 11 Indian languages

Support for hyphenating in 11 Indian languages is now available in Scribus, desktop publishing system. Two years back I had written how Malayalam hyphenation support was added to Scribus. Later, I had filed a bug to add support for more Indian languages. That is now fixed.

Scribus has a new way to download and use these hyphenation dictionaries. You can now use this feature right away in your installed scribus. The languages with hyphenation support are the following:

• Malayalam
• Tamil
• Telugu
• Marathi
• Hindi
• Bengali
• Gujarati
• Assamese
• Panjabi
• Odia

### How to Add Hyphenation Dictionary?

Navigate to Windows -> Resources in the menu bar. You will see a window as given below. You may want to press “Update Available List”. Then you can see all the languages with hyphenation dictionaries available. Select the download checkbox and press “Download” button. The dictionary will get installed to your system.

## How to use?

• Start a new document. Add text frames and content. You may need narrow columns to have wordbreaking contexts.
• Select the text and set appropriate font(Unicode) for your language. Make sure the language is selected as your preferred language.
• In Hyphenation properties, set hyphenation character as blank, otherwise visible hyphens will appear.
• Set the text justified.
• From menu Extras->Hyphenate text. Done.

## How does it work?

The resource manager based hyphenation libraries are easier way to add new hyphenation dictionaries. Earlier, these files need to add to Scribus source code. Now these files are defined in scribus server – http://services.scribus.net/scribus_hyph_dicts.xml. It maps the languages to files to download. So if I update the dictionaries in the github repo, a new installation will take that updated file.

## Reporting issues

If you find any issues in the hyphenation rules, you can file at https://github.com/smc/hyphenation/

## Gayathri – New Malayalam typeface

Swathanthra Malayalam Computing is proud to announce Gayathri – a new typeface for Malayalam. Gayathri is designed by Binoy Dominic, opentype engineering by Kavya Manohar and project coordination by Santhosh Thottingal.

This typeface was financially supported by Kerala Bhasha Institute, a Kerala government agency under cultural department. This is the first time SMC work with Kerala Government to produce a new Malayalam typeface.

Gayathri is a display typeface, available in Regular, Bold, Thin style variants. It is licensed under Open Font License. Source code, including the SVG drawings of each glyph is available in the repository. Gayathri is available for download from smc.org.in/fonts#gayathri

Gayathri has soft, rounded terminals, strokes with varying thickness and good horizontal packing. Gayathri has large glyph set for supporting Malayalam traditional orthography, which is the new trend in contemporary Malayalam. With a total of 1124 glyphs, Gayathri also has basic latin coverage. All Malayalam characters defined till Unicode 11 is supported.

There are not much Malayalam typefaces designed for titles and large displays. We hope Gayathri will fill that gap.

This is also the first typeface by Binoy Dominic. He had proved his lettering skills in his profession as graphic designer, working on branding with Malayalam content for his clients.

Binoy prepared all glyphs in SVGs, our scipts converted it to UFO sources. Trufont was used for small edits. Important glyph information like bearings, names, were defined in yaml configuration. Build scripts generated valid UFO sources and fontmake was used to build OTF output. Of course, there were lot of cycles of design fine tuning. Gitlab CI was used for running the build chain and testing. Fontbakery was used for quality assurance. UFO Normalizer, UFO Lint tools were also part of build system.

## വിക്കിപീഡിയയ്ക്ക് പതിനെട്ട്. നാലുലക്ഷം തർജ്ജമകളും

വിക്കിപീഡിയയുടെ പതിനെട്ടാം പിറന്നാളാണിന്ന്. അമ്പത്തെട്ടുലക്ഷം ലേഖനങ്ങളോടെ ഇംഗ്ലീഷ് വിക്കിപീഡിയയും അറുപതിനായിരത്തോളം ലേഖനങ്ങളോടെ മലയാളം വിക്കിപീഡിയയും ഒരുപാടു പരിമിതികൾക്കും വെല്ലുവിളികൾക്കുമിടയിൽ യാത്ര തുടരുന്നു.

292 ഭാഷകളിൽ വിക്കിപീഡിയ ഉണ്ടെങ്കിലും ഉള്ളടക്കത്തിന്റെ അനുപാതം ഒരുപോലെയല്ല. വിക്കിമീഡിയ ഫൗണ്ടേഷനിൽ കഴിഞ്ഞ നാലുവർഷമായി എന്റെ പ്രധാനജോലി ഭാഷകൾ തമ്മിൽ മെഷീൻ ട്രാൻസ്‌ലേഷന്റെയും മറ്റും സഹായത്തോടെ ലേഖനങ്ങൾ പരിഭാഷപ്പെടുത്തുന്ന സംവിധാനത്തിന്റെ സാങ്കേതികവിദ്യയ്ക്ക് നേതൃത്വം കൊടുക്കലായിരുന്നു.

ഇന്നലെ ഈ സംവിധാനത്തിന്റെ സഹായത്തോടെ പുതുതായി കൂട്ടിച്ചേർത്ത ലേഖനങ്ങളുടെ എണ്ണം നാലുലക്ഷമായി.

## Swanalekha input method now available for Windows and Mac

The Swanalekha transliteration based Malayalam input method is now available in Windows and Mac platforms. Thanks to Ramesh Kunnappully, who wrote the keyman implementation.

I wrote this input method in 2008. At those days SCIM was the popular input method for Linux. Later it was rewritten for M17N and used with either IBus or FCITX. A few years later, this input method was made to available in Android using Indic keyboard. Last year, due to requests from Windows and Mac users, Chrome and Firefox extensions were prepared. Thanks to SIL Keyman, now we made it available in those operating systems as well.

By this, Swanalekha Malayalam becomes an input method you can use in all operating systems and phones.

Detailed documentation, downloads are available in Swanalekha website. Source code: gitlab.com/smc/swanalekha. A small video illustrating the installation, configuration and use in Windows 10 given below.

Update: The keyboard is now served by keyman from their website. And the supported platforms also increased.

## Malayalam morphology analyser – First release

I am happy to announce the first version of Malayalam morphology analyser.

After two years of development, I tagged version 1.0.0

## In this release

In this release, mlmorph can analyse and generate malayalam words using the morpho-phonotactical rules defined and based on a lexicon. We have a test corpora of Fifty thousand words and 82% of the words in it are recognized by the analyser.

A python interface is released to make the usage of library very easy for developers. The library is available in pypi.org – https://pypi.org/project/mlmorph/ Installing it is very easy:

Installing it is very easy:

pip install mlmorph

It avoids all difficulties of compiling the sfst formalism and installing the required hfst, sfst packages.

For detailed python api documentation and command line utility refer https://pypi.org/project/mlmorph/

## Next

There are lot of known limitations with the current release. I plan to address them in future releases.

• Expand lexicon further: The current lexicon was compiled by testing various text and adding missing words found in it. Preparing the coverage test corpora also helped to increase the lexicon. But it still need more improvement
• Many language specific constructs which are commonly used, but consisting of multiple conjunctions, adjectives are not well covered. Some examples are മറ്റൊരു, പിന്നീട്, അതുപോലെത്തന്നെ, എന്നതിന്റെ etc.
• Optimizing the weight calculation: As the lexicon size is increased, many rarely used words can become alternate parts in agglutination of the words. For example, പാലക്കാട് can have an analysis of പാല്, അക്ക്, ആട് -Even though this is grammatically correct, it should get less preference than പാലക്കാട്<proper noun>.
• Standardization of POS tags: mlmorph has its own pos tags definition. These tags need documentation with examples. I tried to use universal dependencies as much as possible, but it is not enough to cover all required tags for malayalam.
• Documentation of formalism and tutorials for developers. So far I am the only developer for the project, which I am not happy about. The learning curve for this project is too steep to attract new developers. Above average understanding of Malayalam grammar is a difficult requirement too. I am planning to write down some tutorials to help new developers to join.

## Applications

The project is meaningful only when practical applications are built on top of this.

## Malayalam morphology analyser – status update

For the last several months, I am actively working on the Malayalam morphology analyser project. In case you are not familiar with the project, my introduction blog post is a good start. I was always skeptical about the approach and the whole project as such looked very ambitious. But, now  I am almost confident that the approach is viable. I am making good progress in the project, so this is some updates on that.

## Analyser coverage statistics

Recently I added a large corpora to frequently monitor the percentage of words the analyser can parse.  The corpora was selected from two large chapters of ഐതിഹ്യമാല, some news reports, an art related essay, my own technical blog posts to have some diversity in the vocabulary.

 Total words 15808 Analysed words 10532 Coverage 66.62% Time taken 0.443 seconds

This is a very encouraging. Achieving a 66% for such a morphologically rich language Malayalam is no small task. From my reading, Turkish and Finnish, languages with same complexity of morphology achieved about 90% coverage. It may be more difficult to increase the coverage for me compared to achieving this much so far. So I am planning some frequency analysis on words that are not parsed by analyser, and find some patterns to improve.

The performance aspect is also notable. Once the automata is loaded to memory, the analysis or generation is super fast. You can see that ~16000 words were analyzed under half of a second.

## Tests

From the very beginning the project was test driven. I now has 740 test cases for various word forms

## The transducer

The compiled transducer now is 6.2 MB.  The transducer is written in SFST-PL and compile using SFST. It used to be compiled using hfst, but hfst is now severely broken for SFST-PL compilation, so I switched to SFST. But the compiled transducer is read using hfst python binding.

 Fst type SFST arc type SFST Number of states 200562 Number or arcs 732268 Number of final states 130

## The Lexicon

The POS tagged lexicon I prepared is from various sources like wiktionary, wikipedia(based on categories), CLDR. While developing I had to improve the lexicon several times since none of the above sources are accurate. The wiktionary also introduced a large amount of archaic or sanskrit terms to the lexicon. As of today, following table illustrates the lexicon status

 Nouns 64763 Person names 505 Place names 2031 Postpositions 85 Pronouns 33 Quantifiers 57 Abbreviations 27 Adjectives 18 Adverbs 14 Affirmatives 6 Conjunctions 75 Demonstratives 9 English borrowed nouns 657 Interjections 36 Language names(nouns) 639 Affirmations and negations 8 Verbs 3844

As you can see, the lexicon is not that big. Especially it is very limited for proper nouns like names, places. I think the verb lexicon is much better. I need to find a way to expand this further.

## POS Tagging

There is no agreement or standard on the POS tagging schema to be used for Malayalam. But I refused to set this is as a blocker for the project. I defined my own POS tagging schema and worked on the analyser. The general disagreement is about naming, which is very trivial to fix using a tag name mapper. The other issue is classification of features, which I found that there no elaborate schema that can cover Malayalam.

I started referring http://universaldependencies.org/ and provided links to the pages in it from the web interface.  But UD is also missing several tags that Malayalam require. So far I have defined 85 tags

## Challenges

The main challenge I am facing is not technical, it is linguistic. I am often challenged by my limited understanding of Malayalam grammar. Especially about the grammatical classifications, I find it very difficult to come up with an agreement after reading several grammar books. These books were written in a span of 100 years and I miss a common thread in the approach for Malayalam grammar analysis. Sometimes a logical classification is not the purpose of the author too. Thankfully, I am getting some help from Malayalam professors whenever I am stuck.

The other challenge is I hardly got any contributor to the project except some bug reporting. There is a big entry barrier to this kind of projects. The SFST-PL is not something everybody familiar with. I need to write some simple examples for others to practice and join.

I found that some practical applications on top of the morphology analyser is attracting more people. For example, the number spellout application I wrote caught the attention of many people. I am excited to present the upcoming spellchecker that I was working recently. I will write about the theory of that soon.

## Typoday 2018

Santhosh and I jointly presented a paper at Typoday 2018. The paper was titled ‘Spiral splines in typeface design: A case study of Manjari Malayalam typeface’. The full paper is available here. The presentation is available here.

Typoday is the annual conference where typographers and graphic designers from academia and industry come up with their ideas and showcase their work. Typoday 2018 was held at Convocation Hall, University of Mumbai.

## Stylistic Alternates for ച്ച, ള്ള in Manjari and Chilanka fonts

The ligatures for the Malayalam conjuncts ച്ച, ള്ള have less popular variants as shown below

The second form is not seen in print but often in handwritten Malayalam. I have seen it a lot in bus boards especially at Thiruvananthapuram. There are no digital typefaces with the second style, except the Chilanka font I designed. It uses the second variant of ച്ച. I got lot of appreciation for that style variant, but also recieved request for the first form of ച്ച. I had a private copy of Chilanka with that variant and had given to whoever requested. I also recieved some requests for the second style of ള്ള. For the Manjari font too, I recieved requests for second variant.

Today I am announcing the new version of Manjary and Chilanka font, with these two forms as optional variants without the need for a different copy of a font. In a single font, you will get both these variants using the Opentype stylistic alternatives feature.

The default styles of ച്ച and ള്ള are not changed in new version. The fonts comes with an option to chose a different form.

## Choosing the style for webfonts using CSS

Use the font-feature-settings CSS style to choose a style. For the element or class in the html, use it as follows:

For style 1:

font-feature-settings: "salt" 1;

For style 2:

font-feature-settings: "salt" 2;

## Choosing the style variant in LibreOffice

In the place of the font name in font selector, append :salt=1 for first style, :salt=2 for second style. So you need to give Manjari Regular:salt=2 as the font name for example to get second style.

## Choosing the style variant in XeLaTeX

fontspec allows to choose alterate style variants. Use Alternate=N syntax. Note that N starts from 0. So for style1, use Alternate=0 and for style2 use Alternate=2. Refer section 2.8.3 of fontspec documentation.

\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\usepackage{polyglossia}
\newfontfamily{\manjari}[Script=Malayalam]{Manjari}
\begin{document}

\end{document}


This will produce the following rendering:

## Choosing the style variant in Inkscape

Inkscape font selection dialog has a feature to chose font style variants. It uses the property values of CSS font-feature-settng.

In Adobe, Indesign, selecting the ligature will give stylistic alternative(s) if any to choose.

## Updated fonts

Updated fonts are available in SMC’s font download microsite https://smc.org.in/fonts